Today: [1 Chronicles Three] The Genealogy of David. In this short chapter we find a recitation of the sons of David down through the exile and captivity in Babylon. There was some notable omissions and interesting reordering particularly of the sons of Bathsheba. David had two groups of sons, in Hebron and then in Jerusalem during his lengthy reign. The final son mentioned in the chapter is in fact a mystery of sorts and points according to ancient Jewish sources to the Messiah Himself.
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[1Ch 3:1-24 KJV] 1 Now these were the sons of David, which were born unto him in Hebron; the firstborn Amnon, of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; the second Daniel, of Abigail the Carmelitess: 2 The third, Absalom the son of Maachah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur: the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith: 3 The fifth, Shephatiah of Abital: the sixth, Ithream by Eglah his wife. 4 [These] six were born unto him in Hebron; and there he reigned seven years and six months: and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty and three years. 5 And these were born unto him in Jerusalem; Shimea, and Shobab, and Nathan, and Solomon, four, of Bathshua the daughter of Ammiel: 6 Ibhar also, and Elishama, and Eliphelet, 7 And Nogah, and Nepheg, and Japhia, 8 And Elishama, and Eliada, and Eliphelet, nine. 9 [These were] all the sons of David, beside the sons of the concubines, and Tamar their sister.
In this brief chapter we read of the lineage of David. It is of particular interest to us because in the line of David the Messiah and our Lord and Saviour is to come forth. The sons of David are divided into two groups – those born to him in Hebron and before and those born to him in Jerusalem of which of course Solomon is included who succeeds David upon the throne.
David had more than one wife and several of those are listed here: Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, Abigail the Carmelitess, Maacah, Haggith, Abital, Eglah, Bathshua). David also had concubines which Absolom defiled before all Israel on the roof top of David’s palace during the insurrection that he led against his father’s rule. Saul’s daughter Michal is left out of the list of David’s wives because she despised David when he danced before the Lord and as a result was shut up away from David all her life and therefore bore him no sons.
His first son was Ammon who Absalom slew over the rape of Tamar. His second son was Daniel also known as Chileab. There was something about Chileab that was different because he is virtually ignored in the narrative of the royal intrigues of David. Absalom takes the throne being third in the line of David and totally neglects to deal with Chileab. There was perhaps some defect in this second son that rendered him unable or unfit to rule.
David had six sons in Hebron where he reigned seven and a half years. In Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years and fathered 13 sons by his legitimate wives, many children by his concubines and Tamar his only legitimate daughter who was raped by the eldest son Ammon and shut up for the remainder of her life. The Bathshua mentioned is of course Bathsheba who we see bore David four sons in all naming Solomon last suggesting either that he was the youngest of Bathshua’s sons or that he is listed last by Ezra as a slight against him in the narrative because of his idolatrous ways.
10 And Solomon’s son [was] Rehoboam, Abia his son, Asa his son, Jehoshaphat his son, 11 Joram his son, Ahaziah his son, Joash his son, 12 Amaziah his son, Azariah his son, Jotham his son, 13 Ahaz his son, Hezekiah his son, Manasseh his son, 14 Amon his son, Josiah his son. 15 And the sons of Josiah [were], the firstborn Johanan, the second Jehoiakim, the third Zedekiah, the fourth Shallum. 16 And the sons of Jehoiakim: Jeconiah his son, Zedekiah his son. 17 And the sons of Jeconiah; Assir, Salathiel his son, 18 Malchiram also, and Pedaiah, and Shenazar, Jecamiah, Hoshama, and Nedabiah. 19 And the sons of Pedaiah [were], Zerubbabel, and Shimei: and the sons of Zerubbabel; Meshullam, and Hananiah, and Shelomith their sister: 20 And Hashubah, and Ohel, and Berechiah, and Hasadiah, Jushabhesed, five. 21 And the sons of Hananiah; Pelatiah, and Jesaiah: the sons of Rephaiah, the sons of Arnan, the sons of Obadiah, the sons of Shechaniah. 22 And the sons of Shechaniah; Shemaiah: and the sons of Shemaiah; Hattush, and Igeal, and Bariah, and Neariah, and Shaphat, six. 23 And the sons of Neariah; Elioenai, and Hezekiah, and Azrikam, three. 24 And the sons of Elioenai [were], Hodaiah, and Eliashib, and Pelaiah, and Akkub, and Johanan, and Dalaiah, and Anani, seven.
The latter section of this chapter traces the Davidic line after Solomon beginning with Rehoboam under whose reign the kingdom was divided. The record continues on through the fall of Jerusalem into the time of the exile notably listing Zerubabbel a principal character in the book of Zecheriah as being likewise a son of David. In this chapter all of the Davidic kings are mentioned leaving out only the one ruling queen, Athaliah who took the throne by assassination and deceit. Josiah’s first born is curiously not mentioned perhaps having died young never having been a candidate for rule or to have children himself.
The exiled kings of David’s direct line are mentioned beginning with Jeconiah who was carried away to Babylon. Those mentioned after Jeconiah were all born in exile yet carried on and maintained the royal line of David.
So we see in total that David both in Hebron and Jerusalem had 19 sons. Most of them no doubt raised noble families but are not traced in the narrative given in the scripture as only those of direct ascension to the kingship are considered worthy of note. Remarkably and rare in history we see that the crown of David was passed to 17 generations before the destruction and captivity of the southern kingdom. This was because of God’s promises to David because he was a man after God’s own heart. This shows us the impact a godly parent can have even on successive generations removed from them.
The line of David after Jeconiah languished in exile and little is known of them other than particular individuals such as Zerubabbel whom we will learn more of in the return from captivity in later books. Finally the last person’s name mentioned is “Anani” which probably is a made up person because the ancient Jewish sources referred to him as the “king – the Messiah that shall come …” which shows us that in the preparation of these genealogies, very much in the forefront of Ezra’s mind was the promise of a coming Messiah.
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